The public's interest in and sometimes repulsion to abstract art was duly noted by some of the more creative photographers of the period. By , in New York Alfred Stieglitz began to show abstract painters like Marsden Hartley and Arthur Dove at his art gallery , which had previously exhibited only pictorial photography.
Photographers like Stieglitz, Paul Strand and Edward Steichen all experimented with depictive subjects photographed in abstract compositions. The first publicly exhibited images that are now recognized as abstract photographs were a series called Symmetrical Patterns from Natural Forms, shown by Erwin Quedenfeldt in Cologne in During one six-week period in he took about two dozen photographs with a camera outfitted with a multi-faceted prism.
The resulting images were purposely unrelated to the realities he saw and to his previous portraits and cityscapes. He wrote "Why should not the camera throw off the shackles of contemporary representations…? Why, I ask you earnestly, need we go on making commonplace little exposures…? In the s and s there was a significant increase in the number of photographers who explored abstract imagery.
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In Germany and later in the U. He said that "the most astonishing possibilities remain to be discovered in the raw material of photograph" and that photographers "must learn to seek, not the 'picture,' not the esthetic of tradition, but the ideal instrument of expression, the self-sufficient vehicle for education. Some photographers during this time also pushed the boundaries of conventional imagery by incorporating the visions of surrealism or futurism into their work. Both during and after World War II photographers such as Minor White , Aaron Siskind , Henry Holmes Smith and Lotte Jacobi explored compositions of found objects in ways that demonstrated even our natural world has elements of abstraction embedded in it.
Frederick Sommer broke new ground in by photographing purposely rearranged found objects, resulting in ambiguous images that could be widely interpreted. He chose to title one particular enigmatic image The Sacred Wood , after T. Eliot 's essay on criticism and meaning. Metzker , Robert Heinecken and Walter Chappell. In the mid s Josef H. Neumann developed chemograms , which are products of both photographic processing and painting on photographic paper. Before the spread of computers and the use of image processing software the process of creating chemograms can be considered an early form of analog post-production, in which the original image is altered after the enlarging process.
Unlike works of digital post-production each chemogram is a unique piece. Beginning in the late s photographers stretched the limits of both scale and surface in what was then traditional photographic media that had to be developed in a darkroom. Inspired by the work of Moholy-Nagy, Susan Rankaitis first began embedding found images from scientific textbooks into large-scale photograms, creating has been called "a palimpsest that has to be explored almost like an archeological excavation.
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By the s a new wave of photographers were exploring the possibilities of using computers to create new ways of creating photographs. Photographers such as Thomas Ruff , Barbara Kasten , Tom Friedman , and Carel Balth were creating works that combined photography, sculpture, printmaking and computer-generated images. Once computers and photography software became widely available, the boundaries of abstract photography were expanded beyond the limits of film and chemistry into almost limitless dimensions. Any boundaries that remained between pure artists and pure photographers were eliminated by individuals who worked exclusively in photography but produced only computer-generated images.
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Media related to Abstract photography at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Instead it establishes visibility. It is only visible, the only-visible. In this way it abandons its media character and gains object character. Retrieved Alvin Langdon Coburn, Symbolist Photographer. NY: Aperture. In Elmar Schenkel; Stefan Welz eds. Magical Objects: Things and Beyond. Archived from the original on Anthony Enns; Shelley Trower eds. Vibratory Modernism. Palgrave Macmillan. Moholy-Nagy: An Anthology. To avoid blur and get clear images, it is generally neccessary to set the focus distance precisely to the correct value, which can usually be done automatically via autofocus.
The term bokeh is used to describe the aesthetic appearance of areas in a photo that are out of focus sufficiently to make them not only slightly blurry but create a more abstract, heavily blurred look. Bokeh is often considered to be plesant when it is not distracting from the parts of the image that are in focus, makes the out-of-focus elements as blurry and unrecognizable as possible, and is devoid of any structure within the bokeh dots. As such, lenses with a wide maximum aperture when shot at or close to that aperture , rounded aperture blades, a long focal length and well-corrected spherical aberration tend to produce the smoothest and strongest bokeh, although many aspects of the lens design can have an impact on the appearance.
When an object, usually branches and leaves, is photographed against a very bright, overexposed sky, the strong light can obscure the edges of the branches leaving only the center visible. The branches are said to be "burned out" since they in fact look like they have been partially consumed by fire. If there is some information left in the photo, the branches can be "filled out" to normal thickness in post processing with the help of an editing program, but most of the time this damage is irreparable. Camera shake occurs when the camera moves during an exposure.
This is usually caused by the photographer moving slightly while holding the camera. You avoid camera shake by placing the camera on a firm surface or use a tripod.
It might also occur if the ground is unstable, like a floor where people are walking by, or on a bridge with traffic. It can also be caused by the camera itself: either the impact of the camera shutter opening rapidly "shutter shock" , or the mirror in a DSLR flipping up out of the way. The former can be eliminated in some cameras by using "electronic first curtain shutter". The latter by using "mirror lock-up", though that can be impractical in many situations.
One advantage of mirrorless cameras is that they do not suffer from shake due to the mirror moving. The longer the exposure, the more likely that camera movement will affect the image. Better holding technique, or bracing yourself can permit longer shutter speeds. See also Image stabilisation and Reciprocal rule. A catch light is a bright highlight reflection of the light source in the subject's eyes.
Without a catch light, the eye can appear dead. Larger catch lights are more appealing than tiny catch lights, which can appear aggressive. A big catch light requires a big light source, such as the sky, a window or softbox positioned close to the subject. The catch light's shape will mirror the light source shape.
A ring flash produces a bright ring in each pupil. Most portrait lighting aims to position the catch light at 10 o'clock or 2 o'clock positions in the eye. Chromatic aberration CA is an effect resulting from dispersion of light in which the lens can not focus all colours to the same point. It happens because lenses "bend" refract different wavelengths of light to different degrees.
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There are two kinds of CA: longitudinal axial and lateral transverse. Longitudinal CA occurs when the lens focuses some colours in front of the sensor and some behind. The effect is seen in a picture in blurred areas that are just in front of the plane of focus e. For example, it may appear to give a purple fringe to the outline of the dark hair on someone's head.
It is worst when the lens aperture is wide-open and improves as the lens aperture is closed. Since the effect is to defocus some colours, it is very hard to correct this in software, other than to desaturate the unwanted colours. Lateral CA occurs when the lens focuses some colours to a point further from the middle of the sensor and some colours to a point nearer the middle of the sensor.
The effect is worst at the edges of the picture, in high contrast areas such as dark branches against a white sky, and appears to give a coloured fringe to dark edges. The fringing will be one colour on edges furthest from the middle of the picture and another colour on edges nearer the middle of the picture. Image processing software can correct this to some degree, though extreme CA of several pixels width will likely cause the software to merely desaturate the fringing colours to grey.
Some modern lenses include details of their CA problems in the data supplied electronically to the camera.
The camera can then automatically remove just the right amount of CA when creating a JPG, or instruct the raw developing software on your PC to do this when you examine your raw files. A lens designer will try to reduce CA by combining many elements in a photographic lens, each one having a different shape or types of glass with different optical qualities. Most of the advanced post processing tools have automatic, semi-automatic or manual tools for removing CA. These should be used if available as they preserve more detail than most manual methods and are far quicker and easier to apply.
There are, however, also ways to get rid of the unwanted green, red, purple or cyan "shadows" in a photo by using the regular tools in any image editing program.
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Most programs have a tool to desaturate or remove color connected to a brush-tool of some kind.